Brain Circulation, the Phenomenon and Challenges


  • Lajda Bana



Brain drain, brain gain, fund of excellence, economic growth, development.


The world of today which seeks globalization, while the economic inequality, corruption, political instability, and moreover wars prevail, it is always associated with the movement of people towards what might be called the ‘best for their future’. This movement is not just a mechanical action, but is a phenomenon associated with social, economic and political consequences not only to the country of origin but also for the host country. The departure of the people from their land is a well-known and proven phenomenon mainly of the developing countries. This phenomenon includes also the so-called brain drain emigration, the departure of skilled people, professionals and researchers from their own country to other places. The brain drain is not only a phenomenon that belongs to developing countries, or former communist states, or those countries in war, but it can also affect the developed Western countries. Brain drain does not always constitute a brain gain in the host country. In most of the cases, people who have to leave the countries in political instability or former communist countries, even if they are qualified and holders of university degrees, they are obliged to work in humble jobs which can be simply exercised by persons without university qualifications. Consequently, the brain drain phenomenon is not automatically turned into a benefit 'brain gain' for the host country; on the contrary, it might even be turned into the so-called brain-waste. A social challenge in this context remains the turn of "brain drain" into "brain gain" or "brain circulation". Therefore, one of the current priorities for governments is to create effective economic and social conditions which would enhance the integration of the graduates, researchers and professionals into their national and regional markets




How to Cite

Bana, L. (2016). Brain Circulation, the Phenomenon and Challenges. European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(1), 56–63.