Enemy as the "Other" in Novels of Spain Civil War(by Stress on L'Espoir?)


  • Aghajani Kalkhoran Somayeh Allameh Tabataba’I, University in Persian Language and Literature




"War Literature", "enemy", "Self", "Other", "L'Espoir (The Hope)".


The most obvious type of "Other" in War Literature is the enemy which militate against 'self" forces. In fighting with foreign enemy we clearly know the "Other" but in Civil Wars recognition of it is not easy. "Other" in Civil War comes from "Self" forces, "self" turns to "Other" in way sometimes we cannot distinguish between them. The identity of this "Other" is in border; sometimes is "Self" and sometimes is the "Other" during the novel. This research is done to answer to this question: Is enemy as an "Other" different and variable in war novels? Is the process of making "Other" is different in militating with internal and external enemy? This survey uses the theories of Cultural Studies about representation of "Other" and "Self" in studying the novel of L'Espoir (The Hope) written by Andre Malraux which is about the Civil War of Spain. The study shows that how and in which process during the novel, "Self" and the "Other" turn to each other. It represents in comparison with novels about war between two foreign enemy and country, the enemy is the "Other" throughout the story, in the most Civil War novels such as L'Espoir (The Hope), because of the same nation, in somewhere the distinguishing border between "Self" and the "Other" becomes defaced so in some cases there is a doubt including enemy as the "Other".