Multiculturalism and Javanese Ways of Behaving as Reflected in Umar Kayam’s Works of Fiction


  • Suroso Suroso Faculty of Languages and Arts, Yogyakarta State University



Multiculturalism, fiction, Sociology of Literature


This study aimed to describe the construction of multiculturalism in Umar Kayam's works of fiction in terms of the forms of multiculturalism, the factors causing multiculturalism and the effects of multiculturalism. This study used sociology of literature approach that sees literature as a reflection of society. There were three short stories and two novels that became the subjects of this study. They were Seribu Kunang-kunang di Manhattan (1988), Sri Sumarah, Bawuk (1988), Para Priyayi (1991), and Jalan Menikung (1993). The results showed that (1) the forms of multiculturalism found in Umar Kayam’s works are recognition of difference, democracy, justice and equality before the law, cultural values and ethos, unity in diversity, respect for other’s ethnicity and nationality as well as religious belief, implementation of cultural philosophy, appreciation of the private and public domain, respect for human rights and freedom to choose culture in a community; (2) the causes of multiculturalism are migration, intra-ethnic and inter-ethnic marriage, occupation, and devotion to somebody/"ngenger", (3) the effects of multiculturalism are reflected in the tolerant nature, respect for individual or group of people, surrendered life, willingness to help others, humility, and respect for religious beliefs.